REFERENCES & SOURCES

MINING OPERATIONS

  1. https://www.earthworksaction.org/
  2. https://www.publicintegrity.org/node/21086
  3. https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations
  4. https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/water-enforcement

BEVERAGE PROCESSING

  1. https://www.brewersassociation.org/educational-publications/water-wastewater-sustainability-manual/
  2. http://brewerywastewater.com/brewery-wastewater-101/brewery-wastewater-101-wastewater-per-barrel/

PHARMA / HEALTHCARE

  1. Clara, M.; Strenn, B.; Gans, O.; Martinez, E.; Kreuzinger, N.; Kroiss, H. Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants. Water Res. 2005, 39, 4797–4807.
  2. Virkutyte, J., Varma, R.S., Jegatheesan, V., Eds.; Treatment of Micropollutants in Water and Wastewater; IWA Publishing: London, UK, 2010; p. 483.
  3. Auriol, M.; Filali-Meknassi, Y.; Tyagi, R.D.; Adams, C.D.; Surampalli, R.Y. Endocrine disrupting compounds removal from wastewater, a new challenge. Process Biochem. 2006, 41, 525–539.
  4. Mompelat, S.; Le Bot, B.; Thomas, O. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical products and by-products, from resource to drinking water. Environ. Int. 2009, 35, 803–814.
  5. Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M., Eds.; Marine Pollution and Human Health; Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK, 2011; p. 182.
  6. Zoeller, R.T.; Brown, T.R.; Doan, L.L.; Gore, A.C.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Soto, A.M.; Woodruff, T.J.; Vom Saal, F.S. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection: A statement of principles from the endocrine society. Endocrinology 2012, 153, 4097–4110.
  7. Falconer, I.R.; Chapman, H.F.; Moore, M.R.; Ranmuthugala, G. Endocrine-disrupting compounds: A review of their challenge to sustainable and safe water supply and water reuse. Environ. Toxicol. 2006, 21, 181–191.
  8. Zhang, C.; Li, Y.; Wang, C.; Niu, L.; Cai, W. Occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds in aqueous environment and their bacterial degradation: A review. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 46, 1–59.
  9. Jobling, S.; Casey, D.; Rogers-Gray, T.; Oehlmann, J.; Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Pawlowski, S.; Baunbeck, T.; Turner, A.P.; Tyler, C.R. Comparative responses of molluscs and fish to environmental estrogens and an estrogenic effluent. Aquat. Toxicol. 2004, 66, 207–222.
  10. Kidd, K.A.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Mills, K.H.; Palace, V.P.; Evans, R.E.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Flick, R.W. Collapse of a fish population after exposure to a synthetic estrogen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007, 104, 8897–8901.
  11. Janex-Habibi, M.-L.; Huyard, A.; Esperanza, M.; Bruchet, A. Reduction of endocrine disruptor emissions in the environment: The benefit of wastewater treatment. Water Res. 2009, 43, 1565–1576.
  12. Nadzialek, S.; Vanparys, C.; Van der Heiden, E.; Michaux, C.; Brose, F.; Scippo, M.-L.; De Coen, W.; Kestemont, P. Understanding the gap between the estrogenicity of an effluent and its real impact into the wild. Sci. Total Environ. 2010, 408, 812–821. Water 2016, 8, 128 14 of 15.
  13. Spencer, A.L.; Bonnema, R.; McNamara, M.C. Helping women choose appropriate hormonal contraception: Update on risks, benefits, and indications. Am. J. Med. 2009, 122, 497–506.
  14. Cicek, N.; Londry, K.; Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Wong, D.; Lee, Y. Removal of selected natural and synthetic estrogenic compounds in a canadian full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water Environ. Res. 2007, 79, 795–800.
  15. Danzl, E.; Sei, K.; Soda, S.; Ike, M.; Fujita, M. Biodegradation of bisphenol A, bisphenol F and bisphenol S in seawater. Int. J. Env. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1472–1484.
  16. Gultekin, I.; Ince, N.H. Synthetic endocrine disruptors in the environment and water remediation by advanced oxidation processes. J. Environ. Manag. 2007, 85, 816–832.
  17. Khanal, S.K.; Xie, B.; Thompson, M.L.; Sung, S.; Ong, S.K.; Van Leeuwent, J. Fate, transport, and
  18. biodegradation of natural estrogens in the environment and engineered systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 6537–6546.
  19. Fernandez, M.P.; Noguerol, T.-N.; Lacorte, S.; Buchanan, I.; Piña, B. Toxicity identification fractionation of environmental estrogens in waste water and sludge using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and recombinant yeast assay. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2009, 393, 957–968.
  20. Holmes, M.; Kumar, A.; Shareef, A.; Doan, H.; Stuetz, R.; Kookana, R. Fate of indicator endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage during treatment and polishing for non-potable reuse. Water Sci. Technol. 2010, 62, 1416–1423.
  21. Luo, Y.; Guo, W.; Ngo, H.H.; Nghiem, L.D.; Hai, F.I.; Zhang, J.; Liang, S.; Wang, X.C. A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment. Sci. Total Environ. 2014, 473, 619–641.
  22. Basile, T.; Petrella, A.; Petrella, M.; Boghetich, G.; Petruzzelli, V.; Colasuonno, S.; Petruzzelli, D. Review of endocrine-disrupting-compound removal technologies in water and wastewater treatment plants: An EU perspective. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2011, 50, 8389–8401.
  23. Tijani, J.O.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F. A review of pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds: Sources, effects, removal, and detections. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2013, 224, 1–29.
  24. Mollah, M.Y.A.; Schennach, R.; Parga, J.R.; Cocke, D.L. Electrocoagulation (EC)—Science and applications. J. Hazard. Mater. 2001, 84, 29–41.
  25. Rodriguez, J.; Stopic, S.; Krause, G.; Friedrich, B. Feasibility assessment of electrocoagulation towards a new sustainable wastewater treatment. Environ. Sci. Poll. Res. Int. 2007, 14, 477–482.
  26. Canizares, P.; Jimenez, C.; Martinez, F.; Saez, C.; Rodrigo, M.A. Study of the electrocoagulation process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2007, 46, 6189–6195.
  27. Gadd, A.; Ryan, D.; Kavanagh, J.; Beaurain, A.-L.; Luxem, S.; Barton, G. Electrocoagulation of fermentation wastewater by low carbon steel (Fe) and 5005 aluminium (Al) electrodes. J. Appl. Electrochem. 2010, 40, 1511–1517.
  28. Holt, P.K.; Barton, G.W.; Mitchell, C.A. The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology. Chemosphere 2005, 59, 355–367.
  29. Symonds, E.; Cook, M.; McQuaig, S.; Ulrich, R.; Schenck, R.; Lukasik, J.; Van Vleet, E.; Breitbart, M. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit. Sci. Rep. 2015, 5, 9380.
  30. Ciorba, G.A.; Radovan, C.; Vlaicu, I.; Masu, S. Removal of nonylphenol ethoxylates by electrochemically-generated coagulants. J. Appl. Electrochem. 2002, 32, 561–567.
  31. Martins, A.F.; Wilde, M.L.; Vasconcelos, T.G.; Henriques, D.M. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate degradation by means of electrocoagulation and electrochemical fenton. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2006, 50, 249–255.
  32. Ivashechkin, P.; Corvini, P.F.; Dohmann, M. Behaviour of endocrine disrupting chemicals during the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. Water Sci. Technol. 2004, 50, 133–140.
  33. Chang, S.; Waite, T.D.; Schäfer, A.I.; Fane, A.G. Adsorption of trace steroid estrogens to hydrophobic hollow fibre membranes. Desalination 2002, 146, 381–386.
  34. Govindaraj, M.; Sudhir, A.; Sukumar, C.; Hariprakash, B.; Pattabhi, S. Treatment of endocrine disrupting chemical from aqueous solution by electrocoagulation. Sep. Sci. Technol. 2012, 48, 295–302.
  35. Cook, M. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds: Measurement in Tampa Bay, Removal From Sewage and Development of an Estrogen Receptor Model. Ph.D. Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA, 2015. Water 2016, 8, 128 15 of 15.
  36. Akbal, F.; Camcı, S. Copper, chromium and nickel removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation. Desalination 2011, 269, 214–222.
  37. Murthy, Z.V.P.; Parmar, S. Removal of strontium by electrocoagulation using stainless steel and aluminum electrodes. Desalination 2011, 282, 63–67.
  38. Gamage, N.P.; Chellam, S. Aluminum electrocoagulation pretreatment reduces fouling during surface water microfiltration. J. Membr. Sci. 2011, 379, 97–105.
  39. Zhao, H.; Zhang, D.; Du, P.; Li, H.; Liu, C.; Li, Y.; Cao, H.; Crittenden, J.C.; Huang, Q. A combination of electro-enzymatic catalysis and electrocoagulation for the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals from water. J. Hazard. Mater. 2015, 297, 269–277.
  40. Attour, A.; Touati, M.; Tlili, M.; Ben Amor, M.; Lapicque, F.; Leclerc, J.P. Influence of operating parameters on phosphate removal from water by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2014, 123, 124–129.
  41. https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/drugs-in-the-water
  42. http://hosted.ap.org/specials/interactives/pharmawater_site/sept14a.html
  43. https://www.epa.gov/hwgenerators/proposed-rule-management-standards-hazardous-waste-pharmaceuticals
  44. https://www.epa.gov/wqc/contaminants-emerging-concern-including-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products

COMMUNITIES

  1. https://b8f65cb373b1b7b15febc70d8ead6ced550b4d987d7c03fcdd1d.ssl.cf3.rackcdn.com/cms/reports/documents/000/002/824/original/CDP-Global-Water-Report-2017.pdf?1510680084
  2. http://www.apnewsarchive.com/2017/A-new-study-suggests-some-50-million-Pakistanis-could-be-at-risk-of-drinking-arsenic-tainted-groundwater/id-bb633b9dbb3744e8835e8009b2f0be8d
  3. https://www.forbes.com/sites/christopherskroupa/2017/10/17/onsite-non-potable-water-systems-are-taking-the-country-by-storm-but-what-are-they/#2496e59741ee
  4. https://www.newsdeeply.com/water/community/2017/12/05/portable-treatment-systems-to-create-first-virtual-water-district